Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava

UKRAINIAN MEDICAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY, POLTAVA


Month of intake in Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava March
Year of Establishment 1921
Duration 6 years
Language of Instruction English
Recognitions Approved by MCI, WHO, USMLE, PLAB, etc.

COUNTRY WISE LIST OF TOP MBBS UNIVERSITIES WITHIN YOUR BUDGET!


Your Budget (Rs) Suggested Country MOKSH Recommended University
10-15 Lacs Kazakhstan + FMGE South Kazakhstan Medical Academy
15-20 Lacs Russia (A Grade) Crimean Federal University
20-30 Lacs Ukraine(A Grade) LVIV Medical University
Bukovinian State Medical University
China (A+ Grade) Jiangsu University
China (A Grade) Jilin University
30-40 Lacs Russia (A Grade) Pirogov Russia NRM University
China (A Grade) China Medical University
40-50 Lacs MBBS in Ukraine + PG in USA MOKSH USMLE for All Universities
75 Lacs above> USA Spartan Health Science University
65 Lacs above with high NEET score India Indian Private Medical Colleges

BUDGET INCLUDES:


  • Tuition fees for the entire MBBS course
  • Hostel accommodation for the entire course
  • Food and Living cost through the course
  • Miscellaneous Costs including

We represent more than 35 Medical universities from various countries. However, these are TOP 10 Universities from suggested on various parameters. Though studying medicine in America is an expensive proposition, it is still beneficial to the Indian students to study medicine in Ukraine and costs lesser than Indian private medical colleges!

NEED GUIDANCE TO SELECT THE COUNTRY?

ABOUT UKRAINIAN MEDICAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY, POLTAVA


The Kharkiv Medical Academy, in the year 1921, established a department of Odontology which was named as Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy. Later in the year 1967, this academy was shifted to the city of Poltava and got its new name, the Poltava State Medical and Dental Institute. It was only due to the years of continuous progress, implementation of advanced study techniques and highly qualified teaching staff, etc. that it has now attained a level 4 accreditation in the year of 2004. And finally, it has been further renamed to Ukrainian Medical Stomatological(or Dental) Academy (known as both UMDA and UMSA) which is often referred through its alternative name, Ukrainian Medical Dental Academy.

The Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy serves as an ideal option for those who seek quality education at an inexpensive cost. UMSA Poltava boasts of a long-term experienced faculty that holds the responsibility of providing quality education to the students. The faculties can be break down into 6 different types along with a preparatory department as shown below-

  • General Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Stomatology
  • Pharmacy
  • Medical Nursing
  • Orthopedic Stomatology

The Ukrainian Medical Dental UniversityPoltavahas been chipping into numerous higher education programs across the globe for UNESCO and the United Nations as well. Being a member of the above mentioned institutions, the Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy adheres to these duties by ways of direction from the Ukrainian government. Their joint purpose is to enhance the medical facility and the personnel in the countries at the developing stage.

UMSA Poltava is responsible for training the international students in a variety of medical specialties for the purpose of making them capable to hand out in the advancement of the medical facility of their respective country. The Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy has been known for yielding some of the worlds best dentists who have been given trainings that match the level of excellence in their fields. The Ukrainian Medical Dental AcademyPoltava, as of now, provides training to more than 28,000 folks (both national and international) in the field of dentistry. And speaking of the medical specialties, around 14,000 medical professionals are trained in their respective field of specialties. Every year, more than 750 foreign students from over 46 countries dwell in the premises of the UMSA Poltava for the purpose of studying the medical specialty that fits their interest.

The degree awarded by UMSA Poltavain Ukraine holds recognition among all the foreign lands and numerous foreign institutions as well. The students who graduate from the Universities in Ukraine as specialized doctorsare known to be at par with those from any other top medical institutes. The education in the Ukrainian Medical Dental Academyis directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health of the Ukrainian nation.

There have been made special provisions for the foreign nationals who have chosen the Ukrainian University for higher studies. The best technological resources are furnished to these students. There are several other facilities which the students can avail while they study medicine in Ukraine-based Universities. Some of these are the academic libraries, well-equipped classrooms, reading rooms, centers for clinical trainings, etc.

The University further takes care of the physical recreation and easement activities and so; many cultural as well as sports events are conducted to alleviate the academic pressure from the shoulders of the students. Hence, all these factors suffice to prove someone as to why the USMA Poltavais the best medical school in Ukraine.

WHY PRUSUE MBBS AT UKRAINIAN MEDICAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY?


The Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy was permitted to enroll international students in the year 1992 from the Ministry of Education of Ukraine. And it was only 5 years later in 1997 that the University actively participated in enrolment of the foreign candidates and eventually introduced a faculty of foreign students and a separate deans office for the international candidates.

More than 8,000 foreign medical students have graduated from this University in various specialties till now. Moreover, 1426 international students are currently enrolled in various specialties such as General Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing, Postgraduate faculty, etc. The UMSA Poltava further has in possession 2 scientific research institutes, namely, the Institute of Traumatology & Orthopedics and Institute of Medical Family Problems.

The clinical centers are outfitted with the latest equipment & advanced technology and conduct trainings on a daily basis by ways ofsimulated open-heart surgeries with artificial blood circulation, kidney transplants, etc. as a part of the students practical training.

UMSA Poltava has more than 6,000 beds that are kept under observation in many hospitals of Poltava, at both municipal and provincial levels. Students have the permission to pay a visit to these hospitals for the purpose of trainings and internships. In the structure of the University are 56 departments, 35 of which are concerned with clinical and consulting work and are located in best regional medical establishmentsin the Poltava city.

The Ukrainian Medical and Dental Academy has been given recognition of the best center for in terms of training methodology. And to further bring to your notice, this recognition has not been given only once, not just twice, not even thrice but for 11 consecutive years (period of 2001-11)!

One can never question the scientific potential of the Ukrainian Medical StomatologicalAcademyas itis represented by 82 doctors of medical science, around 300 candidates of science, 75 professors, 175 assistant professors, 2 award winning candidates of Ukraine State Prize, 8 honorary science and technology workers and 6 honorary physicians in Ukraine of Ukraine.

The Students of Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academyare free to make transfers of their credits to any other medical University of Europe, provided they should serve at least the first year in the University. The UMSA Poltava is the regional center that operates the Bologna process in the Ukrainian region.

THE CITY OF POLTAVA LIES AHEAD OF YOU!


Poltava is a city located in the north-eastern part of Ukraine. It is a city that incorporates modern infrastructure since due to the Second World War; there was a need to renovate the city to recover from the damage it had suffered. It is often referred to as the cultural capital, thanks to its vibrant episodes of history and many famous Ukrainianswho were born here. The natives of Poltava talk blow their own trumpet when it comes to praise their city and call it a city where one wants to live in.

The modern infrastructure can be witnessed in the museums, architectural sites, theaters, cinemas, cultural workshops, universities, etc. The city is a fertile agricultural region and so, many industries dwell in the city that process the farm produce. You can further find here the largest cotton mill of Ukraine which was built for the citys textile and clothing industries.

Let alone the industries and infrastructure, the city boasts of its greenery that lies in the numerous parks, gardens and recreational centers. You may stop by any of the parks and take a glance at the people as to how they cherish the greenery of their city.

In the recent times, the city of Poltava has gone through substantial evolution, thanks to the administration at the municipal level that contemplated itself as being responsible in bringing changes to the city to make it more of a European town and less of a Soviet one. Russian and Ukrainian are the widely spoken dialects in the city. However, the former is more widely spoken while only the latter is officially recognized is the city.

Since the Poltava city is not too large in terms of the area, it is easy for getting around by foot. The proximity within the city is such that if you are walking downtown the city, then you are half an hour away from any destination within the city. You can still opt to travel through different modes of transportation such as buses, taxis, trolleys, etc. While there are 62 bus routes that fasten the different ends of the city, the 11 trolley routes spread across the city further offer rides at a very cheap fare!

COST OF STUDYING AT UKRAINIAN STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY (6 YEARS MBBS PROGRAM)

Cost of studying medicine in Ukraine at Ukrainian Medical StomatologicalAcademy

Cost (USD)* Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6
Tuition Fee 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000
Hostel 600 600 600 600 600 600
Others* 2,100 200 200 200 200 200
TOTAL USD 6,700 (INR 4,69,000) USD 4,800 (INR 3,36,000) USD 4,800(INR 3,36,000) USD 4,800(INR 3,36,000) USD 4,800(INR 3,36,000) USD 4,800(INR 3,36,000)

*Calculated at 1 USD = Rs. 70. The actual rate of exchange would be applied at the time of Fees payment and the student would pay fees accordingly.

Download Cost Sheet with BrochureThe other costs in the first year involve Medical Insurance, Medical check-up, arrival expenses, admission charges, reception charges, transportation charges, Immigration clearance charges, etc.

The total cost to study medicine in Ukraine at the Ukrainian Medical Dental AcademyPoltavawould be INR 21,49,000. Kindly add the cost of Moksh service charges towards Counselling, Guidance, Admission and travel services (Air tickets + Visa + Hostel Drop) as per the registration form.

HOSTEL FACILITIES AND FOOD AT UKRAINIAN MEDICAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY


There are separate hostels for boys and girls. USMA Poltava has in total 4 dormitories with close proximity to the Academy. These hostel rooms come with attached bathroom and other ancillary facilities. And in each dormitory are present security guards 24X7 on duty. The hostel rooms have Wi-Fi facility and are available for 1 student, 2 students and 3 students. Housing options outside the University are also available to the students in the form of rented apartments, the costs of which are determined by size, facilities, proximity of the place. In the hostel, you will find an attached kitchen so that the students could cook food to their own taste. Also, you can buy meals from various food outlets, the Academy canteen being one of them.

BENEFITS OF STUDYING MBBS AT UKRAINIAN MEDICAL STOMATOLOGICAL ACADEMY


  • It is one of the oldest governmental university in Ukraine (Year of establishment-1921)
  • It has more than 150 teachers and professors ensuring good attention given to every student
  • Outstanding quality of education with classes conducted in 100% English medium!
  • The USMA Poltava fee structure is quite economical and affordable for all international students and precisely, Indian students.
  • Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academyis one of the low-cost MBBS colleges in Ukraine.
  • There is zero crime rate in this green town of Poltava!

HOW TO APPLY


The commencement of your admission in Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy would take place with gathering the essential documents for the program. The general documents required in the Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy procedure are listed below.

  • Application form
  • Passport sized photographs
  • 11th& 12th standard mark sheet and certificates issued by the respective board of education
  • IELTS/TOUFL Certificates
  • Your passports scanned copies along with the photograph page
  • Do remember that all these above mentioned documents must be notarized as well as attested from the pertinent authorities

There have been incidents faced by many students where one minor error has resulted in the failure of application. So to avoid any fuss, feel free to get in touch with any of Mokshs counselors to gain access to the information regarding the required documents. Once you have collected all the required documents, you can hand them over to the team of Moksh so that we can submit the application to the Ukrainian Medical Dental Academy Poltavaon your behalf. You can submit your documents in numerous ways. You can either submit them online or hand them over at any of our 35 branches all across the country.

Since you are applying through Moksh, you can rest assured that nothing will hinder your admission process. After the application form has been submitted to USMA Poltava by Moksh, you will receive your invitation letter within few weeks and eventually, your admission letter will arrive.This is just the beginning of Mokshs services for you. Throughout your entire education, we will assist you in numerous ways. So its no surprise that the Moksh family is expanding the trust factor.

APPLICATION DEADLINE 2019


In order to guarantee your place for MBBS in Ukraine programs, you shall really have to time your application perfectly. It is definitely a great choice if you wish to study MBBS in Europe. The ideal time to apply is always before 31st of March every year in Ukraine. The problem is not with the admission letter but mainly the invitation letter & visa process which takes around 2-3 months to be issued from Ministry of Education & consulate of Ukraine. Visa is issued only on the basis of this invitation letter. Also, one must remember that there have been few cases if visa rejection by Ukraine consulate for Indian students apart from the very high cost of Visa for Indian students (Thrice the cost of Russian visa).

ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION TO MBBS IN UKRAINE


Indian students looking to study MBBS abroad having lower academics such as 55% in PCB and still wishing to go for higher quality and lower cost MBBS in Ukraine programs choose this University. Even the students with 50% may apply with just application as their risk factor and secure the admission here through Moksh. Chances are that you will be securing a seat in USMA Poltava since you are applying through Moksh.

RESERVE A SEAT FOR MBBS IN ABROAD ADMISSION 2019


Many of the students wait for NEET exam and results. These students are making a big mistake since the application deadline for most of the MCI approved MBBS abroad universities would pass. In turn, they would waste one more year by repeating the year. MOKSH offers you an innovative solution by reserving your seat and taking the admission letter in your hand as your PLAN B.

In case you get the admission throughNEET 2019, you need not go to your chosen university for MBBS abroad. However, in case you do not make it, at least your backup plan is ready! It would be a smart decision for those students who already booked their medical seats. You must take note of important points:

  • The fees of private medical colleges have been jacked up by almost 50% reaching around Rs. 75 Lakhs for the full course.
  • The admission to the private medical colleges would be only for top 2-3% of the NEET takers.
  • If you have prepared only for the state boards, it would be very difficult for you to prepare for NEET even in 2019!
  • You do not need to pay even a single Paisa for reserving the seat except university application fees.

So just reserve the seat in an MCI approved MBBS abroad university as per your budget and relax!

Kindly notethat many unprofessional agents collect money from you for the first year tuition fees from you. As you can see, MOKSH clearly gives you an indication of the actual fees and its service charges.

ENQUIRE NOW

STUDENT VISA APPLICATION TO STUDY MBBS IN UKRAINE


Moksh has a team specialized on visa application preparation. Generally, the Ukrainian student visa is attained through an interview at the embassy. The embassy is based in New Delhi. The student has to travel and stay in Delhi for a period of 2 days till the process completes. Speaking of the success rate of Moksh, you can consider it 100% when it comes to Ukraine student visa. There are a bunch of documents required for Ukrainian student visa application that are listed below-

  • Invitation letter issued by the Ministry of education
  • Original passport
  • 10th level mark sheet
  • 10+2 mark sheet
  • Birth certificate (in English language)
  • Medical certificates including the HIV certificate
  • Students bank statement (a minimum balance of Rs.4 lakhs must be maintained)
  • Parents bank balance (record of minimum 6 months)
  • Transfer certificate from school/college
  • 10 Identical photographs (50mm X 50mm)
  • Affidavit certificate (Format available with Moksh)]
  • Gap certificate (only for those who had passed 12th level in earlier years)

For more information on the Visa application and process, you may call on our support team at 9699-360-370.

LOW-COST ROADMAP TO STUDY MD / MS IN USA AFTER MBBS IN UKRAINE


Many of the qualified students who wish to become a physician or a doctor in USA lack sufficient budget. MOKSH is the largest company recruiting Indian students forMBBS in USAprogram. Every year, we place around 200 Indian students for USA. However, there is a bigger lot of Indian students who wish to become doctor and practice in USA. We have this alternative route for them. Now, the students can learn MBBS in Ukraine and start preparing for USMLE Step 1 exam coaching online & USMLE step 2 CK online coaching during their MBBS abroad studies. The USMLE step 1 coaching guide will consist of various materials:

  • 220 Hours of Video and Audio contents.
  • 6 to 9 months of interactive online study access.
  • Access to the question bank on USMLE Step 1 Exam.
  • Huge volumes of hardcover original books and interactive e-books.
  • A dedicated mentor to support you throughout the studies.
  • Hand holding for ECFMG application process.
  • 24 x 7 access to the whole learning resources whiles you to study MBBS abroad.

The students must note thatUSMLE step 1and USMLE step 2CK are online exams. MOKSH is the top MBBS abroad consultants in Mumbai providing the option of MD in USA while you are studying MBBS at top medical Universities in Ukraine. Once you clear these exams (Step 1 would require minimum 230 to ensure entry into Medical PG in USA), we would assist you withclinical rotationsin USA. The green book rotations would be conducted in ACGME accredited hospitals during which you are expected to get the letter of recommendations (LOR) to enhance your residency (PG) in USA. During these rotations, you would also appear forUSMLE Step 2CS exam in USA.

So always have 2 coaching options with you:

  • MCI Screening Test coaching (To be replaced by an exam namely 'NEXT')
  • USMLE Step 1 & 2CK exam coaching to end your medical journey to USA

BENEFIT TO PURSUE MD IN USA AFTER MBBS IN UKRAINE


The biggest benefit of completing MD / MS in USA is that you do not have to write MCI Screening Test before or after MBBS in abroad. It means, on completion of MBBS in Ukraine, you can go for PG level (MD / MS) in USA without clearing MCI Test. The PG degree completed in USA would be valid in India as well as USA. Also, all the money that you spent while doing MBBS would be paid back by way of a monthly stipend (USD 4,200 Approx.) while pursuing Medicine in America!

STUDY MEDICAL PG IN GERMANY (MD / MS) AFTER MBBS IN UKRAINE


Once you complete the MBBS in Ukraine, MOKSH can place you for your Post graduation in medicine in Germany. When you apply for this university, you may call on 9699-360-370 to understand your complete roadmap till MD / MS degree.

Students who get admission into a goodmedical university in Ukrainewhich come under thetop 10 MBBS colleges in Ukrainereap the benefit throughout their life.MD in Ukraine after MBBSis a good option but Indian students generally go for theirmedical PG in Germanyafter MBBS in Ukraine.MBBS admission 2019 in Ukrainehas been made direct, simpler and a more systematic system.

SERVICE / CONSULTANCY CHARGES OF MOKSH:


We are a top MBBS abroad education consultant in India with Head office in Mumbai. MOKSH has been successfully placing Indian students for Admission toMBBS in Ukraine. MOKSH is an official representative of many low fees medical colleges in Ukraine. You can take the benefit of our online direct Admission System. MOKSH offers 2 types of services.

Once you apply for MBBS in Georgia programs throughMOKSH Overseas Education Consultants, you have several advantages such as:

  • FMGE or MCI Screening TestCoaching (Online) and FMGE Test Series with study notes.
  • Reliable and honest counseling.
  • Trustworthy university selection with long-term success effect.
  • Guaranteed Admission to MBBS program Georgia.
  • Perfect Visa application documentations & Zero rejection guarantee of Visa issuance.
  • 100% safe and escorted travel services to drop the students to the Universities.
  • Accommodation support at the campus as well as Off-Campus.
  • MCI Eligibility certificate application.
  • FOREX and Travel Insurance support.
  • Providing upgrade to PG levelMD / MS in Germanyafter your course of medicine in Ukraine.

PAST SUCCESS OF MOKSH FOR INDIAN STUDENTS TO STUDY MBBS ABROAD:


Till now, 550+ Indian students for MBBS abroad programs have been placed by MOKSH successfully in different countries. The Indian students can apply directly with MOKSH. They can also apply through its network of Premium Partner available in different cities across India. It would give the Indian students a chance to get the honest guideline to select the right university suitable for MBBS in Ukraine.

INDIAN STUDENTS AT UMDA


MOKSH is one of thetop Abroad Education Consultants in Indiawhich is specialized onMBBS Abroad. MOKSH has been successfully placing Indian students for Admission to MBBS in Ukraine in general & atUMDA as its official representative in India for the last 3 years. All these students understood the difficulty level of getting into Indian government medical colleges and applied through Moksh for MBBS in Ukraine. There are more than 25 Indian students placed by Moksh and are currently studying at this University.

Mokshhas been a representative in India for the last 5 years. Till now, MOKSH has been successful in placing more than 350 students for MBBS abroad programs. Our 25 students are currently studying MBS in Ukraine at UMDA at different levels. Always prefer to apply directly instead of sub-agents since it would give the Indian students a chance to get honest guidance to select the right university suitable for MBBS in Ukraine.

6 YEARS OF FMGE EXAM / MCI SCREENING TEST COACHING & TEST SERIES:


The overseas MBBS students can avail of the exclusive offering ofOverseas Education consultants in Indiato prepareFMGE or MCI screening Test. The Indian doctors got to pass FMGE Exam / MCI Screening Test from MCI recognized universities abroad. The MCI Screening Test coaching is provided for all 19 subjects as per the course and curriculum designed by MCI. The students go through the MCI test coaching while they study MBBS program abroad. It becomes difficult for the Indian Students to have Indian study perspective and to be ready with all 19 subjects when you return back. This is the main reason for you not able to pass MCI exam when you return back. The MCI screening test results from this university higher only for the students if they takeFMGE online coaching.

Now the students can avail of our 6-year package ensuring that they are tuned with Indian curriculum. Coaching goes through the subject by subject preparation in a systematically broken down 128 sub-topics. The video lectures were given by the top doctors including the one who passed MCI screening test. This is the key USP of this coaching package! Avail of this package without fail.Read More

HOW TO GET IN TOUCH WITH US?

GROUP COUNSELLING (SEMINARS):


MOKSH is going to hold seminars in different parts of India and shall come to your city anytime, DO NOT MISS this golden opportunity to interact with our expert counsellors and get the right advice on your medical career!Click hereto register for the seminar!

Also, it is highly advisable to attend one of our Online Counselling sessions on MBBS abroad till PG before attending the seminar as you would have your basics clear since the start!Click hereto attend an online counselling session!

ONLINE COUNSELLING SESSION (WEBINARS):


Get Complete information on MBBS Abroad, MBBS in India, How to choose the university, country, Pros & Cons of different countries, PG preparation followed by a Q & A session with doubt clearance and every other possible detail regarding MBBS right up to PG! To get a glimpse of the previous webinars, Click onMBBS Abroad till PG,MBBS in USA till PG,MBBS in Germany till PG to watch. These are the recorded versions.

To register for a live Online counselling session and get all your doubts cleared with the CEO of MOKSH,Click here. You can also subscribe to our channel on YouTube in order to get constant updates on new webinars and videos on MBBS Abroad!Click hereto subscribe to MOKSH Webinars!

In case of any error, Call on7024240963.

TELE-COUNSELLING:


MOKSH has more than 35 branches across India and students can visit the branches for a Face to Face personal Counselling and Career planning right up to PG. Call 9699360370 to know the nearest MOKSH branch in your city!MOKSH has an extremely knowledgeable and experienced team of MBBS counsellors who have an expertise in a specific topic likeMBBS in Russia, China, USA, Ukraine,Germany, etc right up to PG. You can be in touch with one of the counsellors constantly via phone calls, SMS, WhatsApp, Emails, etc and they shall be there to solve your doubts and help you carve the right path towards your MBBS journey!

You can call on,

  • 9699360370for MBBS Abroad like China, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Poland, Kyrgyzstan, etc. ( if you have a budget in the range of Rs. 15lacs and above)
  • 8082143550for MBBS in USA right up to PG ( If you have a budget of Rs. 60-70 lac)
  • 8291922514for PG in Germany

MOKSH has more than 35 branches across India and students can visit the branches for a face to face personal counselling and career planning session right up to PG. Call 9699360370 to know the nearest MOKSH branch in your city!

PERSONAL COUNSELLING:


MOKSH has its branch offices in 12 cities of India now so there is no need to travel all the way to the Mumbai Head office for a personal counselling! You can still do so if you wish though. To get to a MOKSH office in your own city for a free personal counselling session on MBBS Abroad right up to PG in USA/ Germany, You call on9699360370and our counsellor shall arrange a Personal counselling session in your city or the closest location to you.

MEDICAL BOOK SCHOLARSHIP SPONSORED BY MOKSH:


Moksh understands the pain you have to bear throughout your MBBS journey. Not only the tuition fees but the high-priced textbooks lead to the over expenditure of the hard-earned money. So to lend a helping hand, Moksh has come up with the Medical Books Scholarship program. Here, all you need to pay is the 70% amount of the cost of these MBBS Books and the rest will be paid by Moksh. The scheme provides you concession on over 30 MBBS books that you will need in the first three subsequent years and 34 books for the rest of the years. Irrespective of whether you are a student of Moksh or not, you can still avail this opportunity. All you need to do is to walk in any of the 35 branches of Moksh spread across the country and grab your vouchers for availing the discount. And make sure you collect them now as they are very limited.